Sunday, 23 November 2008

class of 2009

Coursework should now be in and over and done with..... phew!

Next step .... Mock exams

Paper 2 - Wider World paper (Amazonia, Mezzogiorno, Ganges Delta, Calcutta, Global Warming) 2 hour paper Tuesday 8th December 8.45 - 10.45 am

Paper 1 - British Isles 1 hour 15 minutes Friday 12th December 1.30 - 2.45pm

Please make a note that on Thursday 26th February Mr Rowles, Chief Examiner for AQA B is coming in to talk to you all about how to gain those target grades. Please make sure that you are available for that afternoon.

Thursday, 4 September 2008

Congratulations and Good Luck

Congratulations 11D - you got your just rewards.

Jessie Railton - 254 / 300
Matt Rushton - 252/300 total score
(you only needed 211 for an A*!!!!)

All in all....
A* - 8 of you!!!
A - just the 1
B - 5 of you
C - just the 1

By now you will have started on your 6th form places - here's wishing you all the very best,
Mrs N

Wednesday, 20 August 2008

Tuesday, 19 August 2008

Extended writing - link words

and, in addition, moreover, furthermore, indeed, again, similarly, likewise, also, next, first ... last, finally, subsequently, too, in addition, what is more, as well as, at this stage, at the same time, on the one hand

Drawing conclusions:
so, thus, therefore, then, hence, generally, consequently, because, since, to this extent, at most, in conclusion, as a result, because of this, in this way, due to, in the case of, nevertheless

Comparing and contrasting: (remember - don't just describe one thing and then write a separate paragraph about the other ... you need to bring out the similarities and differences - use these link words...)
thus, however, whereas, although, on the other had, by contrast, similarly, an exception to this, even though, instead of, unlike, in spite of

Giving examples: (so important for L3 answers)
for example, when, in particular, for instance, such as.

Thursday, 12 June 2008

Class of 2008

Thank you for all your hard work and efforts.
I hope that the blog has helped in some way with your revision, and thank you for completing the questionnaires.

If you are thinking of returning to do IB from Sept - then please pick up a letter about the trip to Iceland over October half term - I need to have your deposit by 18th June.

I wish you all every success.
Mrs N

'May you build a ladder to the stars
And climb on every rung,
May you stay forever young'
(Bob Dylan)

Monday, 9 June 2008

make sure you cover these ....

core periphery, ERDF, CAP, European Investment Bank, Structural funds
Demographic transition model, birth rate death rates etc, pop pyramids
Push pull migration, shanty towns, a development project in an LEDC
Monsoon and cyclones
Conditions favouring rice cultivation and Green Revolution
Amazonia, climate, nutrient cycle, how does vegetation adapt. Reasons for deforestation – link to global warming
Channel tunnel and links – may link with core periphery
Global warming – always comes up.... (causes, why does sea level rise, effects, management local, national and global)
Rotterdam - map
Factors influencing farming in Mezzogiorno and Casa and IMP

There will be questions that cover all of the syllabus - so you can't leave out any topic.
There will be maps, photographs and graphs. You can expect to have to label a diagram, draw a sketch map and interpret a graph.

Read your command words

When analysing a graph - remember overall trend, specific points, any anomalies

Revision Session: paper 2

Sunday, 8 June 2008

Core - periphery

2005 Explain why the core region is richer than the periphery (3)

The ERDF is one of several ways in which the EU has tried to reduce the differences between the richest and the poorest areas. Other attempted solutions are:

  • The Common Agricultural Policy

  • European Investment Bank Fund

  • Structural Fund

Choose one of these attempted solutions and describe how it tries to reduce the differences between the richest and the poorest areas. (2)

2004 Describe the pattern of GNP per capita as shown on the map (4)

2003 What does fig 6 show about GNP per head and distance from the centre of Europe? (2)

Questions: Channel links

2005 Using Fig 9 describe the main advantages of the Channel Tunnel (4)

For one major port that you have studied, which has sea links between England and Continental Europe, describe its port infrastructure (facilities for handling passengers and cargo) (4)

Questions: Mezzogiorno

2007 Using fig 9 and your own knowledge, describe the difficulties of farming in the Mezzogiorno (6)

2006 Describe recent improvements made in the Mezzogiorno and explain how they have helped to improve the standard of living for farmers (9)

Explain one factor, other than farming, that has led to recent migration into the Mezzogiorno (2)

2005 What is the meaning of the letters IMP? (1)

Give one difference between the use of money from the Cassa and the use of money under the IMP (1)

Suggest why this change has taken place (2)

Explain how physical factors in Southern Italy make farming difficult (4)

How have the changes introduced to farming helped farmers to increase their income (4)

Using figures 13 and 14 and your own knowledge, describe the improvements to farming and to land reform that have taken place in Southern Italy (9)

2004 Describe one way in which land reform has changed farming in the Mezzogiorno (2)


Using the photograph and your own knowledge, describe traditional farming in the Mezzogiorno (6)

Farming in the Mezzogiorno has changed as a result of the work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and, more recently, the Integrated Mediterranean Programme (IMP) Explain how the work of the Cassa and the IMP has improved farming in the Mezzogiorno (6)

Questions: Ganges

2006 Draw a labelled cross section to show the features of a tropical storm (cyclone) (4)

Explain the formation of the Ganges Delta. You may use a diagram (s) in your answer. (6)

you may use a diagram .... but you don't have to in this case!

Using information in Fig 11 and your own knowledge, explain the likely effects of tropical storms in the Ganges Delta (9)

Describe the main physical features of the delta (2)
Explain how the delta has been formed. You may use diagrams to help your answer (6)

Explain how physical factors have encouraged the growth of intensive rice cultivation in the area shown. (4)

2004 Describe how the people who live in the Ganges Delta may be affected by changes in sea level (6)

2003 Describe the tropical monsoon climate (4)

Explain how the tropical monsoon is caused (6)

Explain how a cyclone is formed (3)

Why do many people in the Ganges Delta die as a result of a cyclone? (4)

Describe the farming activity shown in the photograph (2) subsistence rice cultivation

Give 3 physical reasons why the Ganges Delta is a suitable area for growing rice (3)

The Ganges Delta is part of two countries India and Bangladesh. Both these countries have high birthrates and falling death rates. For either India or Bangladesh suggest reasons for the high birth rate. (6)

Give two ways of reducing the damage caused by tropical storms, either in the long term or in the short term (2)

2006 Describe the physical advantages for subsistence rice farming in the Ganges Delta (4)

2006 Explain how the tropical monsoon is caused in summer. (4)

Questions: Global Warming

2007 Explain what is being done to reduce global warming and to manage its consequences (6)

2006 The cutting down of tropical rainforest is one of the reasons for an increasing greenhouse effect around the earth. Explain how it has helped to increase the greenhouse effect. (6)

Sea defences are one way in which the effects of global warming can be managed.

Name two types of sea defence (2)

Choose one type of sea defence and explain how it may reduce the effect of global warming (2)

2005 Name three areas shown on the map which are liable to flooding if the temperature rises (3)

Explain why many areas are in danger of flooding as a result of global warming (4)

Describe the effects of global warming on the people living in one or more of the low-lying areas that you have studied. (4)

2003 The greenhouse effect may be caused by burning fossil fuels and cutting down the rainforests.

How does burning fossil fuels help to cause the greenhouse effect? (2)

How does cutting down the rainforests help to cause the greenhouse effect? (2)

Suggest how the effects of global warming could be reduced. (4)


Explain how global warming can be reduced and how its consequences can be managed. (9)


Explain why the sea level may change as a result of global warming (3)

Questions: Aid

2007 Describe the difference between short-term aid and long-term aid (4)

Suggest one way in which an international aid donor could encourage sustainable development in another country(1)

2006 What is the difference between bilateral aid and multilateral aid? (2)

Many LEDCs are being helped by development projects. Describe the main features of the development project that you have studied and say how the project has helped the local people. (9)

2004 What is meant by each of the following terms: (2)
  • Short-term aid
  • Voluntary aid

2003 Name each of these types of aid: (2)
1. Aid given by charities

2. Government to government aid, usually with some conditions attached

Suggest why a country has received a large amount of short- term aid (1)

Many LEDCs are being helped by development projects. Describe how a development project in an LEDC you have studied has helped the local people (9)

Questions: Urbanisation, squatter settlements,

2007 Name one large urban area which has experienced rapid population growth in recent years (1)

What is the meaning of the term 'urbanisation'? (2)

Describe the pull factors which help to explain the rapid growth of urban areas in LEDCs (4)

Using fig 14 and your knowledge of a large urban area, describe the conditions that have developed in squatter settlements (9)


Describe the pattern of urban growth as shown in Fig 20 (4)

With reference to India or Bangladesh, explain how push and pull factors are responsible for rapid urban growth. (4)

The rapid growth of some of these cities has led to the development of squatter settlements. What is the meaning of the trem 'squatter settlement'? (1)

With the aid of Fig 21 and your own knowledge, describe how conditions in a squatter settlement may improve over time (4)

Describe the main features of a development project in an LEDC that you have studied. (6)


Suggest two push reasons why people in LEDCs leave the countryside and move to cities (2)

Many people who live in squatter settlements work in the informal sector of the economy. Give one example of a job that may be found in the informal sector of the economy (1)

2004 Describe the pattern of urban population as shown by Fig 12 (6)

2003 Describe three features of a squatter settlement (3)

Describe two ways of improving conditions in squatter settlements (4)

Questions: Amazonia

2007 Explain the features of the temperature of Amazonia as shown in Fig 11 (4)

Traditional farming in Amazonia is a type of subsistence farming called 'shifting cultivation' (slash and burn). Explain why shifting cultivation is an example of sustainable development (2)

Describe the ways in which recent developments in Amazonia have affected the environment and the people in this part of Brazil (9)

2004 Describe and explain the main features of the equatorial climate (6)

Annotate figure 9 to show three ways in which the vegetation has adapted to the climate and soil conditions (6)

Describe traditional shifting cultivation in Amazonia (6)

How has the environment and that of the surrounding area been affected by large open cast mining? (4) note: this question is asking for local effects NOT global effects.

Recently ecotourism has become popular in Amazonia. With the help of Fig 11, explain why the holiday advertised could be described as an ecotourism holiday (6)

Questions: Rotterdam

2007 Explain why Rotterdam is considered to be part of the core of the European Union (4)

There are several planning issues in the Rotterdam / Europoort conurbation. Describe what has been done to solve this planning issue (6)

2006 A conurbation has many functions. What is the meaning of the term 'function'? (1)

2005 Map (4)

List three different functions of the Rotterdam / Europoort Conurbation (3)

2004 Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of Rotterdam / Europoort (4)

List three of its important functions (3)

Questions: Mediterranean Spain

2007 Name one of the Balearic islands (1)

Give one climatic factor which has led to the growth of tourism in Mediterranean Spain (1)

Explain the problems and benefits that tourism has brought to the economy of Mediterranean Spain (9)

2006 Describe the main features of the Mediterranean climate (4)

Why is the Mediterranean climate attractive to tourists from Northern Europe? (4)

Explain the environmental problems linked with large hotel complexes in Mediterranean Spain. (6)


Name a major tourist area in Mediterranean Spain (1)

What are the climatic attractions referred to in Fig 11 (3) what is it about the climate that attracts tourists?

What are the 'other' reasons referred to in Fig 11 (3) what factors, other than the climate, attracts tourists to Mediterranean Spain?

How might the environment be damaged by tourists visiting Mediterranean Spain? (6)

Questions: Japan

2007 Name one Japanese TNC which produces motor vehicles (1)

Explain why some Japanese TNCs are investing in the EU (4)

Using Fig 12 and fig 12b, compare the distribution of the Japanese motor vehicle industry with that of the Japanese electronics industry (4)

hint: in a question that asks you to compare, you must state similarities AND differences.

2005 Describe the distribution of the Japanese electronics industry. (2)

Explain the distribution of the Japanese electronics industry (6)

Using one or more named locations, describe the ways in which the Japanese have attempted to reduce industrial pollution (6)

2007 With reference to a named area (s), explain how the environment of Japan has been polluted by industrial production

Japan has many transnational corporations (TNCs). What is the meaning of the term 'transnational corporation'? (2)

Some Japanese motor vehicles and electronics companies have invested in overseas countries. Give two reasons why the Japanese have invested outside Japan. (2)

2003 Give two reasons why the coastal areas of Japan have a high population density (4)

2003 Japan has many trans- national corporations. Give 2 reasons why Japanese TNCs want to set up factories in the European Union (4)

energy wise

Tuesday, 3 June 2008

Mediterranean Spain: location, climate and origin of visitors

Mediterranean Spain - tourism advantages & disadvantages

Japan - Physical Geog and Population distribution

Japan - Hi-Tech industry

Hi Tech Industry
View more presentations or upload your own.

Japan - car industry

Japan - foreign investment

Amazon - impact of human activities

Italy - Casa per il Mezzogiorno

Friday, 9 May 2008


2005 Q4c
Using one or more named locations, describe the ways in which the Japanese have attempted to reduce industrial pollution. (6 marks)

The area around Tokyo Bay has a concentration of steelworks and chemical factories. This has led to the pollution of both the air and water. Chemicals such as mercury are released into the water. 1970 Water Pollution Control Law prohibited releasing poisonous wastes into the sea. Sulphur dioxide was released as the result of burning fossil fuels. Problems of air pollution have been overcome by building chimneys taller so that the pollution would enter stronger winds and be carried further and be diluted before settling. Chemical and sprinkler systems are now installed on tops of chimneys to remove the sulphur dioxide. Water sprinklers keep the coal / iron ore piles wet so dust cannot form. ‘green corridors’ of trees have also been planted around factories to trap any dust and to reduce noise and visual pollution.

Water supply


population - high birth rate

2003 Q3d The Ganges Delta is part of two countries, India and Bangladesh. Both these countries have high birth rates and falling death rates. For either India or Bangladesh suggest reasons for the high birth rate (6 marks)

Bangladesh has a high birth rate for a number of reasons. Firstly there is a high infant mortality rate so families have a large number of babies to ensure that some children survive that not only will be able to work the land but will be able to look after their parents when they get older. It is also important to have a male heir. There is limited knowledge or willingness to practise family planning. Women are not as highly educated as males and they do not have career expectations, their main duty is to marry early and have children. Bangladesh has a young population so there is a large proportion of women of child – bearing age.

UK population hits 60 million

Have a look at this website:
Find more videos like this on Key Stage 3 Geography Ning

Development project in LEDC

2005 Q5c Describe the main features of a development project in an LEDC that you have studied (6 marks)

Name of Development project – Vietnam Dyke Project
The building of dykes in Ky Anh Province, Vietnam rice yields were low because farmland was often flooded by the sea and soils became very saline. Oxfam worked with local government and local people to build a sea dyke 11 miles long which means that areas of farmland can be drained and protected from flooding. There is therefore an increase in farmland. This could be used to grow food crops like rice as well as cash crops which can be sold. People are better fed and they also have money from the sale of cash crops. Roads have also been built to improve communications and trade. This long term project is sustainable because it taught the people new skills. These skills allowed them to undertake other building work. They were also able to teach these skills to others and their children. It uses low cost technology such as hand tools. Any surplus rice crop can be taken to market along the new roads, so increasing the farmers’ income.

Urban model answer from Mrs Royston

2007, P1,Q5 Study Figure 8, on the insert, which shows an area of Stoke-on-Trent before and after improvement. Suggest why this urban renewal scheme has advantages over a comprehensive redevelopment scheme (4)

Level 1 (Basic) 1-2 marks
Simple statements, with lifts from Figure 8, or with no indication of why the scheme in Stoke-on-Trent is better than comprehensive redevelopment.
The area has been landscaped and there are places for the toddlers to play. Roads have been improved. Renovation is cheaper.

Level 2 (Clear) 3-4 marks
Linked statements, which show how urban renewal is better than slum
With comprehensive redevelopment people would have to be moved away from the area where they had lived for a long time and there would be a loss of community spirit. With urban renewal however, people could stay in the area and the houses would have been modernised and improved for example with new bathroom facilities or new roofs. The general environment is also improved making it a more pleasant area in which to live for example ‘green’ areas are provided through landscaping and play areas are provided for young children. (4 marks)

Why can gentrification be considered a disadvantage to some people living in inner city areas? (1 mark)

•The price of houses would go up and the local people may not be able to buy in the area any more.
•There may be some change of service provision in the area e.g. a pub might become a wine bar.
•These changes might lead to social divisions within the area.

Name the large urban area you have studied. Compare your chosen large urban area with the model in Figure 2 (Burgess concentric zones model). You must refer to examples of streets / districts in your answer. (4 marks)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
No reference to named example or basic description of the area with no reference to the model.
New Street, Colmore Row and Broad Street are in the centre of Birmingham. The next areas are Highgate and Sparkhill and then come Hall Green. The furthest out is Monkspath. In the centre are shops and offices. Then come poor housing and nearer the edge are better class housing.

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)

Some indication of where the urban morphology fits or does not fit perfectly into the simple concentric model of Figure 2. Need to refer to at least 2 urban zones for full marks. Maximum mark only if some comparison made to urban model.
Birmingham is an example of a city that generally fits into the concentric zone model. The CBD is found in the centre of the city and has all the typical features of a CBD. New Street is the centre of the retail area, Colmore Row is the main financial area and Broad Street is one of the main entertainment areas in the CBD. Birmingham’s CBD is surrounded by the Inner City areas as identified in the model. Highgate is an inner city area that had been redeveloped and there is now a mixture of both industry and lower quality housing. Sparkhill is another inner city area although this area is more traditional with rows of 19th century terraced housing that have now been improved and gentrified. One area that does not fit the circular model is Edgbaston/ Harborne. This area is close to the CBD however is chararcterised by expensive 19th housing that was originally owned by industrialists. The houses tend to be large detached houses. Housing is newer as you move outwards, for example the outer suburb of Monkspath is newer than the inner suburb of Hall Green. Monkspath is dominated mostly by modern, high class detached and semi detached housing and Hall Green is characterised by interwar semi detached housing. Another area that does not fit the concentric model is Chelmsley Wood. This is a housing estate found on the edge of the city.

Population model answers from Mrs Royston

With reference to Brazil or India or Bangladesh, explain how push and pull factors are responsible for rapid urban growth (4)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
•Simple statements are made.
•There are more jobs and more medical facilities etc in cities so people move there.
•Natural disasters and infertile soils in the countryside cause people to move to the cities.

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)
•Need both push and pull factor(s). For full marks there needs to be some evidence that the candidate recognises that the question asks for reference to a specific country.
•People move from rural areas due to push factors, for example, the floods in Bangladesh cause loss of food and this means that people in the countryside move to the urban areas of Calcutta or Dhaka. The pull factors from these urban areas also include the expectation of more varied and regular work with higher pay, improved housing and sanitation and more hospitals and doctors.

Glaciation model answers from Mr Nailor

1. Name two processes that contribute to glacial erosion and describe how each one takes place.

1. ABRASION. As a glacier moves, the rocks frozen into its base and sides scratch the valley bottom and sides and wear (erode) it. It has a sandpaper effect so the eroded rock looks smooth.
2. PLUCKING. When a glacier is not moving it tends to freeze itself to the valley sides. If the glacier then starts to move it will tear lumps of rock out of the valley sides. This happens a lot at the backwall (headwall) of the glacier.

3. Ribbon lakes(finger lakes) are often found on the floor of a U-shaped valley (glacial trough). Describe three ways in which a ribbon lake is formed.

1. If a valley floor contains both hard and soft rocks the glacier will erode deeper into the softer rock. This eroded hollow may the fill with water to create a lake.
2. Where a tributary glacier joins a main valley glacier the extra weight of ice will erode downwards more at this point. This deeper hollow may then fill with water to create a lake.
3. When a glacier reaches lower ground it will start to melt in the higher temperatures. As it melts it deposits rock debris contained in the ice. This deposited rock forms a bank of rock called a terminal moraine across the valley floor. This can act as a dam and a lake can form behind it.

new industry model answers from Mr Nailor

1.Manufacturing can be described as a system, involving inputs, processes and outputs. Define the terms inputs, processes and outputs, giving examples of each.

INPUTS. These are the factors which are put into the industry e.g. raw materials, fuel, labour and transport.
PROCESSES. These are the jobs done with the inputs e.g. processing of materials, assembling parts and packaging the finished item.
OUTPUTS. These are the finished products e.g computers, cars, clothes and chemicals.

2. Explain why hi-tech industry has grown up along the M4 corridor.

This industry has developed in places like Bristol and Reading on the M4. Land here is cheaper than in London further to the east, but access to London is easy and fast. Some of the products are exported by air so closeness to Heathrow airport on the western side of London is important. There are fast road links for deliveries to other parts of Britain via the M4,M5,M40,M25 and M3. Hi –tech products are light and easily/cheaply transported by road. Bristol and Reading are university towns which can supply skilled workers and undertake research and development of new products.

Thursday, 8 May 2008


Just to wish you all the very best in your forthcoming exams and wherever you go post 16

Remember you've done the work, completed the exam questions and know the exam techniques.

Keep checking the blog for updates......

Good luck

Mrs N

Wednesday, 16 April 2008


Abrasion - A glacial erosion process. When blocks of rock debris are trapped on the underside of a glacier and then, as the glacier moves, this has a sand paper effectwearing away the base and sides of the valley.
Arete - a knife edge ridge that separates two corries e.g. Striding Edge
Corrie - an arm chair shaped depression formed on the side of a mountain e.g. Red Tarn
Frost shattering - a weathering process. Water gets into cracks in the rock. When the tempreature drops beloow zero, the water freezes and expands exerting pressure on the sides of the crack. Eventually the crack is widened and the rock disintegrates.
Glacial trough - U - shaped valley which has been widened and deepened by a valley glacier e.g. Patterdale
Glacier - a mass of moving ice
Plucking - A glacial erosion process. Water enters cracks in the rock and freezes so that it is attached to both the rock and the glacier. When the glacier moves, the block of rock is pulled out of the ground.
Ribbon Lake - a long thin, deep lake on the floor of a glacial trough e.g. Thirlmere


You've recently been doing this in learning to learn. I came across these ideas today:
Rural to urban migration
Think PUSHED for Push factors
P - pressure on land so many have to leave
U - unemployment in the countryside
S - sanitation - poor or non-existent in rural areas. Often no running water or clinics
H - hardship - often a harsh climate
E - education - little if any
D - disasters, drought, famine, civil war etc

PULL Factors

B - better paid jobs or perceived better job opportunities, factory jobs which are not dependent on the weather
E - education provision is better
P - perception that city life is better
H - More provision of health care

Characteristics of out of town shopping centres - use your case study of Merry Hill and try to suggest reasons for its location under the following points : CAR SPACES

C - cheap land
A - accessibility
R - redeveloped loand
S - sphere of influence
P - parking
A - all weather shopping
C - choice of shops
E - expansion
S - secure

Sunday, 13 April 2008

Road transport

Traffic problems

  • air and noise pollution
  • health problems
  • greater demands on car parking
  • heavy congestion
  • commuter traffic - twice daily build up
  • danger to pedestrians
  • vehicle vibrations can cause damage to old buildings
  • cost of road maintenance
  • old buildings cleared to make way for new roads

    1. reduce the amount of traffic entering the urban area: - traffic free zones, park and ride schemes (Cambridge, Stratford upon Avon), inner and outer ring roads (Birmingham), bypass, motorways, M6 Toll, congestion charges (London)

    2. encouraging people to use public transport: - reliable and frequent bus service, fare reductions (e.g. season tickets), bus only lanes so public transport is faster, installing new rapid - transport systems (Manchester Metro)

    3. Reducing air pollution from vehicle exhausts by:- enforcing law on vehicle emissions
    using traffic control methods: traffic lights

    Case Study - Birmingham

In Birmingham, there have been major traffic problems in the past, particularly around the main routes into the city centre. In order to tackle this, Birmingham City Council have taken a number of measures. In the North they have turned the A38 into a tidal flow road, which is now known as the Aston Express Way. This allows them to change the number of lanes entering and leaving the city to cope with the rush hour. In addition there is also an urban motorway with up to 8 lanes for traffic to cope with the volume. In the East the Stratford Road is now a red route, which means that there is no stopping allowed along this stretch of road and thus maintains the flow of traffic. The main heart of the CBD around New Street, is pedestrianised with bus lanes all around the edge of the CBD. This allows commuters to reach the centre easily and quickly whilst keeping them safe. To the West of Birmingham a rapid transit system (trams) has been set up running from the Black Country into Snow Hill Station, in the business area of the CBD. This is a park and ride scheme aimed at commuters and runs every 10 minutes during the week. There has been major investment in the public transport network with Travel West Midlands offering integrated timetables linking bus routes with trains. All prices on public transport are kept below £1.00 per journey to encourage people to use it. The road network is well organised with both an outer and inner ring road keeping traffic away from the city centre. In 2003 the M6 Toll Road was opened which takes traffic away from the motorways around the edge of Birmingham in order to reduce pressure and congestion on these roads.

With thanks to Miss West and Rachel


The movement of people out of urban areas (e.g. inner city areas) into a more rural environment (suburbs)

Why do people want to move away from the more urban areas: (PUSH FACTORS)

  1. higher density housing
  2. little space
  3. less room
  4. poor quality housing
  5. higher crime rates
  6. more congestion
  7. higher levels of air and noise pollution
  8. both shopping and industry are tending to move towards outskirts

Why are people attracted to the more rural areas? (PULL FACTORS)

  1. more spacious
  2. better quality of housing with more modern amentities, double glazing, detached properties, front and back gardens, garages, utility rooms
  3. bigger houses and gardens
  4. safer for children
  5. less congested
  6. improved transport makes commuting possible
  7. more attractive environment close at hand
  8. new residential estates
  9. closer to modern industrial estates set up in rural fringe
  10. less air and noise pollution

Effects of out-migration on the more urban areas:

  1. less people
  2. derelict land as industry moves out
  3. elderly and unemployed people left behind
  4. loss of 'community spirit
  5. older housing becomes more run down, empty houses are boarded up
  6. shops close due to less custom
  7. less government investment

Effects of in-migration on more rural areas

  1. pressure for more new housing development
  2. rise in house prices (young cannot afford homes and move away)
  3. schools become more overcrowded
  4. more pressure on local services - doctors
  5. locals swamped by newcomers - friction
  6. becomes busier, area looses its charm

Outer Suburbs - Monkspath, Hillfield, Solihull


1. Larger properties could be built due to the lower cost of land.

2. Lower density housing

3. Houses are of better quality with all modern amenities and garages.

4. Best performing schools

5. Less traffic congestion and pollution than the inner city.

6. Closer to the countryside.

7. Close enough to the CBD to commute by car or train. (Widney Manor, Solihull, Dorridge)

8. Access to motorways. (M42 > M6, M40)


1. Long commuting travel times - risk of accidents and being late for work.

2. Higher costs of journey to work.

3. High cost of housing, young adults unable to afford to buy properties in area where they were brought up

4. Less sense of community spirit as people spend little time at home, separated by fences and hedges.

5. Distance from CBD for shopping and entertainment.

6. Rising number of burglaries.

inner city

1. The zone between CBD and suburbs e.g. Sparkhill

2. Grew during industrial revolution – large number of workers moved from countryside to the towns for jobs in factories and mills which led to a demand for cheap housing close to the place of work

3. High density terraced, back-to-back houses were built in long straight rows

4. Few amenities (no indoor WC, bathroom, sewerage, or electricity, gardens, open space)

5. Good community spirits developed

6. Factory owners and wealthy business people also lived in the more desirable areas of the inner city - but in larger 3/4 storey terraces.

Road pattern

1. Built in long straight rows/parallel roads.

2. Grid layout, narrow roads and pavements.

3. No gardens or garages - on street parking.

Housing and amenities

1. Housing cheap, often poor quality, quickly built; no proper kitchens, bathrooms or central heating (outside toilet).

2. Local services catered for the needs of the people, including corner shops (think BBC's Open All Hours)schools, public houses, churches, libraries and parks.

1. Cheap to acquire

2. Available for rent - accessible for immigrants/the low paid or unemployed.

3. Some areas have seen major improvements - inside bathrooms, double glazing, adding outside features. (Gentrification)

4. Near to CBD - work, shops, entertainment.

5. Strong community feel


1. Old houses lacking modern amenities and needing substantial repair

2. Surrounded by derelict land when traditional industries declined and factories closed

3. High levels of graffiti and vandalism.

4. Traffic congestion - problems of rat- runs, problems of parking


The Central Business District is the most accessible part of a town

road and rail routes converge
high land values leading to tall buildings
competition for land
shops, high order, large departmental stores and specialist shops
banks and offices
often central area is pedestrianised
congested with traffic and people

Urban Definitions:

CBD – Central Business District. The commercial and business centre of a city.
Commuter – a person who lives in one settlement and travels daily to work in another settlement.
Commuter village – a village where a large number of the residents travel to work each day in another settlement and then return each evening
Comprehensive redevelopment - the rebuilding of housing and industry together with roads and environmental improvements
Gentrification – Professional people return to live close to the city centre by buying up older substandard housing which is then substantially improved.
Green belt – the area of land around a large urban area where the development of housing and industry is restricted and the countryside is protected for farming and recreation
Housing renovation – The improvement of homes by adding inside bathrooms, toilets, central heating etc.
Inner city – The area occupied by 19th century factories and terraced housing
Migration – the movement of people, either voluntary or forced, between or within countries
Out of town shopping centre – A retail park built in the countryside on the edge of a town –e.g. Merry Hill
Retail park – A group of large one storey shops with car parks built close to a major road,
Rural – urban fringe – area between the built up area and the countryside where there is often competition for land use e.g. golf courses, business parks, residential homes
Shopping centre – A group of shops
Slum clearance – the removal of old and decayed housing
Suburb – the outer, usually, residential area of a town or city
Suburbanisation – The growth of housing and population in the outer areas of a town
Twilight zone – The area of decay between the CBD and the inner city
Urbanisation – When the percentage of the population living in towns within a country increases
Urban morphology – the pattern of land use in a town

Energy: location and requirements

GAS - located mainly on eastern side of UK e.g. around Humber Estuary. Case Study Killingholme
Large flat site in areas of low population density and where land is of little agricultural value - cheap
Access to gas fields – e.g. North Sea
Close to river for cooling water and als water needed to produce steam for generation

COAL - located on coalfields, close to collieries and existing open cast coal mines e.g. Selby, Case Study: Eggborough Humberside
Large flat site
Built on or near large supplies of coal (mine) because it is bulky and very expensive to transport

Often linked to pits by special railways that only carry coal. By locating close to mine and building rail links, transport costs are reduced

Located along major rivers because large amounts of water are needed to produce steam to drive turbines and need large amounts of cooling water

Many are near to urban areas many of the large conurbations developed on the coal fields during the time of the industrial revolution

NUCLEAR - scattered locations around the country. Case Study Heysham, Lancs
Located away from large populated areas in case of accidents and also as there is less opposition to building plant
Large, flat site
Low value land
Stable bedrock
Located on the coast as vast amounts of water are needed for cooling purposes
Good transport links for both raw materials and waste products

WIND - farms - majority are located in west of country, in upland areas. No wind farms in National Parks. Case Study Lambrigg wind farm, Cumbria
because ....
Areas with high and regular wind speeds so often found in exposed coastal locations or in remote upland areas
The wind speeds are higher in the west of the country
In Britain there are more days when winds blow from the west than from any other direction so there are more days when the wind turbines can be operated.
At higher altitudes, wind speeds are faster and there are fewer obstacles to block the wind.
Wind farms are not built where they would detract from the natural beauty of a National Park

HEP - Found mainly in the north and west of the UK in upland areas. Case Study: Cruachan W. Scotland
Large and regular rainfall (> 1500mm pa) and low rates of evaporation in order to provide a constant supply of water.
Upland areas where narrow valleys which are ideal for dam construction and water storage
Strong and impermeable bed rock so water does not drain away through the rocks
Cheap land, sparsely populated
Steep upland gradients or former waterfall to give the necessary high head of water to turn the turbines

Electricity generation.... definitions

Electricity Generation - making electrical power
Fossil Fuel - Non renewable forms of energy formed through past organisms, coal, oil, natural gas. When burnt, these release carbon
Hydro electric power - The use of falling water to turn a turbine to generate electricity
Non-renewable energy - A fuel source which can only be used once before it is exhausted because it takes millions of years to form
Renewable energy - A source of fuel which can be used over and over again, e.g. wind, solar
Thermal power station - Power stations which use heat to make steam which turns the turbines to generate electricity. The heat can be made from the burning of coal, oil or gas or alternatively from nuclear reactions or use of geothermal activity.

Energy - types, advantages and disadvantages

Gas - Advantages
More efficient to burn and easier to transport and distribute (by pipeline and tanker) than coal. Cleaner, cheaper and less harmful to the environment than coal.

Safer than nuclear energy.

Gas - Disadvantages
It is a fossil fuels so adds to global warming and the creation of acid rain.
It is a non-renewable resource so supplies will eventually run out.

Coal - Advantages

Reserves are likely to last for over 300 years.
Improved technology has increased the output per worker, allowed deeper mining with fewer workers and made conversion to electricity more efficient.
Coal also used for heating and making coke.

Coal - Disadvantages

The most easily accessible deposits have been used up and production costs have increased.
There is increasing competition from other types of energy.
It is a fossil fuel and so contributes to global warming and the creation of acid rain.
Deep mining can be dangerous, while opencast mining temporarily harms the environment.
Coal is heavy and bulky to transport.

Nuclear - Advantages

Only very limited amounts of raw materials are needed, e.g. 50 tonnes of uranium per year compared with 540 tonnes of coal per hour needed for coal-fired stations.
Safeguards make the risks of accidents minimal.
Reserves of uranium will last much longer than those of coal and gas.
Waste is limited and can be stored underground.
Nuclear power is believed to contribute less than coal and oil to the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Nuclear - Disadvantages

It is not clear how safe nuclear power is.
Conservationists argue that one accident may kill many, and ruin an area of ground for hundreds of years.
There are potential health risks. The high incidence of leukaemia around Sellafield and Dounreay has been linked to proximity to nuclear power stations.
Nuclear waste can remain radioactive for many years.
The cost of decommissioning old power stations is extremely high.

HEP - Advantages
Hydro-electricity is renewable and is often produced in highland areas where the population is sparse.
It is a relatively cheap form of power and creates little pollution.
Dams built to store water for HEP production can also reduce risks of flooding and water shortages.

HEP - Disadvantages

Dams are very expensive to build.
Large areas of farmland and wildlife habitats may have to be flooded forcing people and animals to move.
Unsightly pylons can cause visual pollution and there is the
Possibility of the dam collapsing.
Silt, previously spread out over farmland, will be deposited in the lake.
More recently, it has been shown that if an area is flooded, the decaying vegetation can release methane and carbon dioxide - two greenhouse gases.

Solar- Advantages

Pollution free
Limitless in supply

Solar - Disadvantages
Technology to build cheap efficient solar power stations has not yet been developed
In countries such as the UK, capability to produce large amounts of solar energy is greatly reduced in the winter, when daylight is shorter and the sun is at a low angle in the sky
Need a large number of panels for small amount of energy

Wind Advantages

Capable of being developed commercially in the UK
Safe, clean (no radioactive or chemical emissions) and does not contribute to global warming or acid rain
Has a minimal effect on local ecosystems
Winds are stronger in winter when demand for electricity rises
After the initial construction electricity production is relatively cheap
Wind farms provide a source of income for farmers and may attract industry in isolated rural areas
Future wind farms are likely to be built offshore

Wind - Disadvantages

Expensive to build and maintain. Around 7000 turbines needed to produce the same amount of electricity as 1 nuclear power station. As many as 100 000 wind farms may be needed if UK is to generate 20% of its total energy from wind
Wind does not blow all the time
Wind farms spoil scenic countryside and areas
Wind farms are noisy and can interrupt radio and TV signals for people living nearby. Affect property values
Still an expensive and not very efficient way of producing electricity

Friday, 11 April 2008

Farming definitions

Growing of crops
Large scale, capital intensive farms that specialise in only a few crops and use scientific advisers and techniques together with business principles to produce the maximum yields and quality. Often tied to supermarkets or processors to buy the crops
The number and variety of plant and animal species found in an ecosystem
Capital intensive
Large capital investment in machinery, chemicals etc to maximise outputs
Common Agricultural Policy
The E.U policy on farming. By guaranteeing prices on many foodstuffs, CAP ensures that farmers earn enough money to be able to make a decent living and invest in their farms.
Crop rotation
The system, of growing a sequence of crops in strict rotation in the same field in order to maintain soil fertility
Farmers are encouraged to find new ways of using their land
Economies of scale
Cost savings made by production on a large scale
Chemicals (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) from fertilisers seep into streams etc. Here it causes rapid growth of algae which blocks sunlight. Oxygen is used up and stream life begins to die.
Land left unseeded after being ploughed and harrowed to regain fertility
Chemicals which add nutrients to the soil to replace those that the crops take out
Food mountains and lakes
Mountains – grain, butter, beef
Money which is given to a farmer to cover cost of farm improvement
Chemicals which kill weeds which might compete with the crops for nutrients and sunlight
Chemicals which kill insects which might eat crops or damage them
Intensive farming
There are large inputs to each hectare in order to produce large outputs of crops
Labour intensive
A system of farming which requires a heavy amount of hand labour
An area of land temporarily under grass
Farming involving both animals and crops
Production of a single crop
Farming which rears only animals
Chemicals which kill pests such as fungus which can damage crops during growth.
A set amount of food which a farmer is allowed to produce
Set aside
A policy whereby farmers leave some land unused and receive a payment in compensation
Money given to farmers when the market price for their produce is low. This ensures that farmers do not make a loss.
Overproduction of certain crops which need to be stored
Lakes – overproduction of liquid farming products: olive oil, wine, milk

Monday, 7 April 2008


River Erosion Definitions:

Abrasion (Corrasion) : Wearing away of the bed and banks due to the action of water and the load. Sand paper effect.
Attrition: The wearing down of rocks and pebbles into smooth rounded particles due to transport by the river.
Hydraulic action: Force of the running water erodes the banks of the river.
Solution (corrosion): The water dissolves particles in the rocks

River Transport Definitions:

Saltation: Sand sized particles are bounced along the river bed
Solution: The water dissolves material
Suspension Small clay sized particles are carried along in the flow of water
Traction: Large boulders are rolled along the bed of the river

Hydrological cycle terms:
Condensation: Process whereby water vapour changes to water liquid
Evaporation: The process whereby water liquid is turned through heat into water vapour
Groundwater: Water underground which has collected from the downward movement of water through the soil and rocks
Impermeble rocks: A rock which does not allow water to pass through
Infiltration: The downwards movement of water through the soil laters
Interception: Trees and vegetation blovck the path of rainfall to the ground
Percolation: Downwards movement of water through the rock
Permeable rock: A rock which does allow water to pass through due to spaces between grains
Precipitation: The deposition of moisture on the Earth's surface - rain, sleet, snow and hail
Stemflow: Water flows down through stems and branches
Transpiration: The process whereby vegetation fives off moisture to the atmosphere

General River basin terms: