Friday, 9 May 2008


2005 Q4c
Using one or more named locations, describe the ways in which the Japanese have attempted to reduce industrial pollution. (6 marks)

The area around Tokyo Bay has a concentration of steelworks and chemical factories. This has led to the pollution of both the air and water. Chemicals such as mercury are released into the water. 1970 Water Pollution Control Law prohibited releasing poisonous wastes into the sea. Sulphur dioxide was released as the result of burning fossil fuels. Problems of air pollution have been overcome by building chimneys taller so that the pollution would enter stronger winds and be carried further and be diluted before settling. Chemical and sprinkler systems are now installed on tops of chimneys to remove the sulphur dioxide. Water sprinklers keep the coal / iron ore piles wet so dust cannot form. ‘green corridors’ of trees have also been planted around factories to trap any dust and to reduce noise and visual pollution.

Water supply


population - high birth rate

2003 Q3d The Ganges Delta is part of two countries, India and Bangladesh. Both these countries have high birth rates and falling death rates. For either India or Bangladesh suggest reasons for the high birth rate (6 marks)

Bangladesh has a high birth rate for a number of reasons. Firstly there is a high infant mortality rate so families have a large number of babies to ensure that some children survive that not only will be able to work the land but will be able to look after their parents when they get older. It is also important to have a male heir. There is limited knowledge or willingness to practise family planning. Women are not as highly educated as males and they do not have career expectations, their main duty is to marry early and have children. Bangladesh has a young population so there is a large proportion of women of child – bearing age.

UK population hits 60 million

Have a look at this website:
Find more videos like this on Key Stage 3 Geography Ning

Development project in LEDC

2005 Q5c Describe the main features of a development project in an LEDC that you have studied (6 marks)

Name of Development project – Vietnam Dyke Project
The building of dykes in Ky Anh Province, Vietnam rice yields were low because farmland was often flooded by the sea and soils became very saline. Oxfam worked with local government and local people to build a sea dyke 11 miles long which means that areas of farmland can be drained and protected from flooding. There is therefore an increase in farmland. This could be used to grow food crops like rice as well as cash crops which can be sold. People are better fed and they also have money from the sale of cash crops. Roads have also been built to improve communications and trade. This long term project is sustainable because it taught the people new skills. These skills allowed them to undertake other building work. They were also able to teach these skills to others and their children. It uses low cost technology such as hand tools. Any surplus rice crop can be taken to market along the new roads, so increasing the farmers’ income.

Urban model answer from Mrs Royston

2007, P1,Q5 Study Figure 8, on the insert, which shows an area of Stoke-on-Trent before and after improvement. Suggest why this urban renewal scheme has advantages over a comprehensive redevelopment scheme (4)

Level 1 (Basic) 1-2 marks
Simple statements, with lifts from Figure 8, or with no indication of why the scheme in Stoke-on-Trent is better than comprehensive redevelopment.
The area has been landscaped and there are places for the toddlers to play. Roads have been improved. Renovation is cheaper.

Level 2 (Clear) 3-4 marks
Linked statements, which show how urban renewal is better than slum
With comprehensive redevelopment people would have to be moved away from the area where they had lived for a long time and there would be a loss of community spirit. With urban renewal however, people could stay in the area and the houses would have been modernised and improved for example with new bathroom facilities or new roofs. The general environment is also improved making it a more pleasant area in which to live for example ‘green’ areas are provided through landscaping and play areas are provided for young children. (4 marks)

Why can gentrification be considered a disadvantage to some people living in inner city areas? (1 mark)

•The price of houses would go up and the local people may not be able to buy in the area any more.
•There may be some change of service provision in the area e.g. a pub might become a wine bar.
•These changes might lead to social divisions within the area.

Name the large urban area you have studied. Compare your chosen large urban area with the model in Figure 2 (Burgess concentric zones model). You must refer to examples of streets / districts in your answer. (4 marks)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
No reference to named example or basic description of the area with no reference to the model.
New Street, Colmore Row and Broad Street are in the centre of Birmingham. The next areas are Highgate and Sparkhill and then come Hall Green. The furthest out is Monkspath. In the centre are shops and offices. Then come poor housing and nearer the edge are better class housing.

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)

Some indication of where the urban morphology fits or does not fit perfectly into the simple concentric model of Figure 2. Need to refer to at least 2 urban zones for full marks. Maximum mark only if some comparison made to urban model.
Birmingham is an example of a city that generally fits into the concentric zone model. The CBD is found in the centre of the city and has all the typical features of a CBD. New Street is the centre of the retail area, Colmore Row is the main financial area and Broad Street is one of the main entertainment areas in the CBD. Birmingham’s CBD is surrounded by the Inner City areas as identified in the model. Highgate is an inner city area that had been redeveloped and there is now a mixture of both industry and lower quality housing. Sparkhill is another inner city area although this area is more traditional with rows of 19th century terraced housing that have now been improved and gentrified. One area that does not fit the circular model is Edgbaston/ Harborne. This area is close to the CBD however is chararcterised by expensive 19th housing that was originally owned by industrialists. The houses tend to be large detached houses. Housing is newer as you move outwards, for example the outer suburb of Monkspath is newer than the inner suburb of Hall Green. Monkspath is dominated mostly by modern, high class detached and semi detached housing and Hall Green is characterised by interwar semi detached housing. Another area that does not fit the concentric model is Chelmsley Wood. This is a housing estate found on the edge of the city.

Population model answers from Mrs Royston

With reference to Brazil or India or Bangladesh, explain how push and pull factors are responsible for rapid urban growth (4)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
•Simple statements are made.
•There are more jobs and more medical facilities etc in cities so people move there.
•Natural disasters and infertile soils in the countryside cause people to move to the cities.

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)
•Need both push and pull factor(s). For full marks there needs to be some evidence that the candidate recognises that the question asks for reference to a specific country.
•People move from rural areas due to push factors, for example, the floods in Bangladesh cause loss of food and this means that people in the countryside move to the urban areas of Calcutta or Dhaka. The pull factors from these urban areas also include the expectation of more varied and regular work with higher pay, improved housing and sanitation and more hospitals and doctors.

Glaciation model answers from Mr Nailor

1. Name two processes that contribute to glacial erosion and describe how each one takes place.

1. ABRASION. As a glacier moves, the rocks frozen into its base and sides scratch the valley bottom and sides and wear (erode) it. It has a sandpaper effect so the eroded rock looks smooth.
2. PLUCKING. When a glacier is not moving it tends to freeze itself to the valley sides. If the glacier then starts to move it will tear lumps of rock out of the valley sides. This happens a lot at the backwall (headwall) of the glacier.

3. Ribbon lakes(finger lakes) are often found on the floor of a U-shaped valley (glacial trough). Describe three ways in which a ribbon lake is formed.

1. If a valley floor contains both hard and soft rocks the glacier will erode deeper into the softer rock. This eroded hollow may the fill with water to create a lake.
2. Where a tributary glacier joins a main valley glacier the extra weight of ice will erode downwards more at this point. This deeper hollow may then fill with water to create a lake.
3. When a glacier reaches lower ground it will start to melt in the higher temperatures. As it melts it deposits rock debris contained in the ice. This deposited rock forms a bank of rock called a terminal moraine across the valley floor. This can act as a dam and a lake can form behind it.

new industry model answers from Mr Nailor

1.Manufacturing can be described as a system, involving inputs, processes and outputs. Define the terms inputs, processes and outputs, giving examples of each.

INPUTS. These are the factors which are put into the industry e.g. raw materials, fuel, labour and transport.
PROCESSES. These are the jobs done with the inputs e.g. processing of materials, assembling parts and packaging the finished item.
OUTPUTS. These are the finished products e.g computers, cars, clothes and chemicals.

2. Explain why hi-tech industry has grown up along the M4 corridor.

This industry has developed in places like Bristol and Reading on the M4. Land here is cheaper than in London further to the east, but access to London is easy and fast. Some of the products are exported by air so closeness to Heathrow airport on the western side of London is important. There are fast road links for deliveries to other parts of Britain via the M4,M5,M40,M25 and M3. Hi –tech products are light and easily/cheaply transported by road. Bristol and Reading are university towns which can supply skilled workers and undertake research and development of new products.

Thursday, 8 May 2008


Just to wish you all the very best in your forthcoming exams and wherever you go post 16

Remember you've done the work, completed the exam questions and know the exam techniques.

Keep checking the blog for updates......

Good luck

Mrs N