Saturday, 31 January 2009

Japan - problems of environmental destruction and pollution

choose any two problems. Explain how each of your chosen problems has been caused.

Water poisoning
In 1956 there was a leak of organic mercury (methyl mercury) in waste from the Chisso Chemical Company plant at Minamata. The company produced nitrogen based fertilisers. The organic mercury was contained in waste water and led to a lot of fish and sea birds being killed. It also found its way into the food chain through seafood and affected the nervous system, leading to

Air pollution in Tokyo
Between 1950 and 1980 there were particularly high levels of sulphur dioxide particulates and other gases released through car exhaust emissions and the burning of household rubbish. Due to the short chimneys on heavy industry plants the dust and gas emissions fell on nearby towns rather than being carried higher into the atmosphere and dispersed in air currents. Burning coal in power stations releases sulphur dioxide and winds carried coal dust and dust from other raw materials into the air.

Japan assessment 3

Eventually Mr Misato chose to build his car assembly plant in the UK. Suggest two reasons why (2 marks)

1. He does not need to pay EU taxes on exports to Europe
Costs for labourers and factory workers is cheaper than in Japan

2. Because then he has a wider market at which to sell products
Tax and costs of transporting the goods are reduced significantly

3. The UK is in the EU so he could bypass EU tariff and avoid having to pay heavy tax as foreign countries bringing products into the EU
EU labour charges are cheaper so the cars will be made more cheaply so it can be competitively priced.

4. Europe provides a large market in which to sell. UK is in this.
Japan's materials are all shipped in some from the UK, you can reduce this expense.

which of these answers is the best?
What is wrong with the last answer?

Factors to include:
1. Bypass EU tariffs - any manufactured goods made outside the EU but sold within have to pay tax. By locating the company within the EU no levy is paid therefore cars are priced competitively
2. Transport costs are lower for bulky items.
3. Labour charges are lower in the UK than in Japan. This leads to lower production costs and thus competitive prices.
4. EU provides a large market - >300 million people
5. In certain locations regional aid is available to assist with establishing the factory
6. Imported Japanese goods need adaptations to meet EU regulations therefore it is easier to construct the vehicles near where they are to be sold.

Japan assessment 2 - car industry location

suggest why Mr Misato would be more likely to build his car assembly plant at location B than at location A

Do the words ' more likely' imply the need for comparison?

Location be is situated on the coast and this land is generally flatter and therefore it would fulfil the requirements for building a factory with a large assembly line. Furthermore location B is more densely populated providing the car manufacturers with a large market to which they can sell their goods. As B is located on the coast it is likely that a deep water port can be found nearby, this can be used to transport the goods made or to import components to the factory. Finally in these areas many factories are usually found which can supply the factory with components for their assembly line and there fore reduce transport costs.

This answer is rather lengthy - what is relevant and what could be omitted?
Location b is on the coast of Honshu where land is much flatter in comparison to the mountainous environment of location A. Therefore as car assembly plants require a large amount of land A would be unsuitable for him. In addition, Japan has little raw materials so they have to be imported. Therefore transporting from the port to the assembly line is expensive and ultimately the manufactured cars would have to be exported, so money from transporting can be saved by locating near the ports. The lowland areas near the coast are already popular with industries and therefore they could then apply the just in time process as the materials needed may be in a nearby component factory. This would increase their efficiency. The increased competition may lead to competitive process helping the assembly plant. The land in the centre of Honshu is steep and mountainous therefore many people live in the lowland coastal areas. Therefore there is a large supply of skilled labour nearby that would work in the car assembly plant.

At location B is closer to the sea to raw materials such as iron ore from Australia can be imported by ships. Also at location D it is easier for cars to be exported by ship to other countries to be sold. From location B it may be easier to get power from nearby power stations and at this location they might be near a steel works factory for it is easier for the car company to maintain steel with a lower transportation cost. The reason steel and power stations might be located there could be because they could use the water area. Location A is not close to the sea so transportation costs may be higher as they transport the goods not only over sea but by road as well.

This needs editing too:
Mr Misato is more likely to build his car assembly plant at location B rather than at A because B is on the coast. This means it will be near a deep water port where ships can unload components and other raw materials. This means by having his assembly plant here, the transport costs would be lower because the companies would not have to travel far to get to the plant. The components would probably follow the 'just in time' system and therefore location B is much better than location A because everything you need is there including: deep water port, steelworks, power plant, main roads and flat land. Having the steel works nearby is good to lower transport costs. The power plant and national grid means they can get the electricity they need. Main roads are good so components can get from one place to another efficiently. In location A, the land would be mountainous, and therefore not ideal for a large assembly plant however in Location B because it is near the coast there will be flat land. If any more land is needed it can be reclaimed from the sea, or terraces built to make flat land. Also location B will have a higher population than location A. The mountainous areas aren't highly populated because of high land. Whereas on flat land, where jobs and skilled labour forces are, there are many people to work in the new plant.
Are these Level 1 (basic) Level 2 (clear) or Level 3 (detailed) answers
How can these answers be improved?
What is meant by agglomeration?

Japan assessment

How have automation and mass production helped to make car assembly an important industry in Japan? (4 marks)
Automation increases a factories output as machines work 24 hours a day unlike humans and make less errors. Also they do not require food and clean conditions etc so reduce manufacturing costs. Consequently the industry is more successful as profit is increased. Also, mass production reduces unit costs as materials are bought in bulk so more profit is made per unit. This has the same effect as previously mentioned. This allows development which causes the motor industry to count for a larger proportion of exports.

Mike's answer:
Automation provides an important part to industry in Japan as it reduces labour costs and wages as machines are used instead of people. Furthermore, they work much faster and more efficiently and accurately so cars are produced faster and to a greater quality. This has allowed mass production to produce large numbers of cars in shorter spaces of time so then the production cost is less so there is a higher profit margin for car industries.

Isobel's answer
Automation and mass production increase the speed of production of goods because methods such as just - in - time means that as soon as components arrive i nthe factories they are used along a large flat line of processes (assembly line?) Mass production makes car industry important because car pieces (components?) are produced on a larger scale which saves money and time. Automation means that machines are doing the job of humans which means the end products will be made quicker and to a better degree of accuracy
Jamie's answer:
Automation allows robots to work for a large amount of time, much longer than humans. A robot is able to work for 24 hours, 7 days a week providing they are well serviced. This saves the business money as less workers are required and more products can be manufactured. Furthermore, by mass producing components for cars are bought in bulk and therefore are cheaper for the company, increasing their profit and allowing them to produce cars efficiently to the orders.

Are these good answers?
Are they focused on the question?
Is it clear what is meant by mass production?
Is it clear what is meant by mass production?
Does it state how these processes have made car assembly an important industry?

What about this answer?:
1. Automation has allowed car components to be built by robots so the process is more accurate and reliable and more efficient (....Than what?) Also automation has allowed components of cars to be made 24/7 and mass produced more frequently because workers aren't efficient and so reliable as human workers. Automation and mass production both can produce large amounts of cars which have a very high standard.

2. Automation has helped Japan because it provides a quick way to manufacture cars. Also, these machines do not need paying so the company can save money this way.

3. By using the just in time method and assembly method of building cars the Japanese have a large enthusiastic workforce. Automation, the use of machines, has improved the quality of products and the speed they are built. They can work all day and do not need paying however they need someone to control them this creates work for locals.

What advice would you give to each of the last three ?

What is meant by 'economies of scale'?