Monday, 31 March 2008

Mediterranean Spain

2007 SC Q2bii Using climate statistics, explain how the climate of Mediterranean Spain has encouraged the growth of a tourist industry.

The winters are warm with an average temperature of about 10 degreesC which is warmer than in Northern Europe and so people go for winter holidays. In summer the temperature reaches around 25 degrees C but there is less than 5mm of rain so there is plenty of sunshine encouraging people to go for summer holidays.

The following economic factors have been important for the growth of the tourist industry in Mediterranean Spain.
Difficult farming conditions
Growth of package holidays
Cheaper transport
For any twoabove explain how each encouraged the growth of the tourist industry in Mediterranean Spain.

Difficult farming conditions
The long summer drought and the thin soils mean that farming was poor, largely producing olives and wheat. Tourism was an alternative source of income and so was encouraged by the Spanish Government.

Growth of package holidays
Everything was arranged by the holiday companies, so it was more convenient for the tourists and so more were encouraged to travel abroad. Holiday prices were kept low because the holiday companies bought aircraft seats and hotel rooms in bulk and so were much cheaper.

Cheaper transport
Development of large jet aircraft meant that tourists could travel more easily and cheaper than before. There were economies of scale that could be passed on to the holiday makers

2006 P2 Q3biii Study Figure 8, a photograph on the insert, which shows a hotel complex in Mediterranean Spain.
Explain the environmental problems linked with hotel complexes such as this in
Mediterranean Spain (6 marks)
Many high rise hotels have been built along the sea front causing severe visual pollution and destruction of local habitats. There are insufficient sewage plants to deal with all the extra guests in hotels, this untreated sewage may enter the sea and causes water pollution and threaten species. There is an increase in air pollution caused by hotel guests hiring cars and increased charter flights bringing guests into the local airports. There is an increased demand on water supplies for hotel use with laundry, swimming pools and general use this may lead to water shortages. Increased noise from traffic and tourism may also scare wildlife.

2004 P2 Q2d What benefits and problems does tourism bring to local people in Mediterranean Spain?

Tourism brings several benefits to local people: (1) It provides jobs, for example in construction projects and service industries like hotels; (2)It provides people an increased income which is spent benefitting local businesses; (3) Higher income improves the standard of living of local people; (4) Tourist tapaid by xes visitors enables the local authority to improve the quality of local services; (5) Facilities built for tourists can often be used by local people as well.
Tourism also brings several problems: (1) Many of the highest paid jobs in tourism go to overseas workers and local people mainly get the lower paid jobs; (2) In the main tourist season roads become congested particularly around the major tourist resorts within one hour journey from airports e.g. Torremolinos causing increased journey times for locals; (3) Facilities become overcrowded and there will be problems with litter on popular beaches like Benidorm and noise nuisance with late night partying disturbing the sleep of local people (4) Many tourist facilities are owned by foreign companies so profits leave the country rather than benefiting locals; (5) Tourists often buy property in Spanish resorts. They are able to pay higher prices than local people so the locals find it difficult to buy property in their local area. (9 marks)


2004 Q3b Wind energy
Study map which shows the location of some wind farms in the UK. Explain why these locations have been chosen. (4 marks)

Wind turbines to be at their most efficient need to be in areas with high and regular wind speeds. Such sites are usually found in areas with high and regular wind speeds. Such sites are usually found on exposed coasts or in upland areas in the more remote parts of western Britain.. Prevailing winds blow over the UK from the west.
Much of the highland areas are moorland where the traditional farming is hill sheep farming. The wind turbines do not interfere with sheep grazing and they provide the farmer with additional income.

2005 Q6c Imagine that you are the Minister of Energy in the Government. Suggest how the UK should generate its electricity in the future. (6marks)

Future power supplies will be a balance between renewable and non-renewable resources as attempts are made to both conserve the finite fossil fuels and make renewable non-polluting forms of producing electricity more economical. The UK needs to become more self sufficient and cannot rely solely on one energy source. The amount of energy produced by both oil and coal must be reduced as these are non-renewable sources of energy and contribute CO2 adding to the greenhouse effect. However, a large number of workers depend on its extraction for employment and there are large reserves left. Nuclear energy will be significant when oil and coal reserves are exhausted however, it is a controversial energy provider as the waste is dangerous and difficult to dispose of.
Renewable energy such as solar, tidal etc should be encouraged especially wind as UK has plenty of potential sites. However they will only gradually become more important as they are expensive to set up and are still technologically not as efficient as thermal power stations.

Sunday, 30 March 2008

Modern Urban Environments

2005 Q4b Inner city improvements …. Explain how one improvement would benefit the local people (4 marks)

Terraced housing improvements.
Houses have been improved by modernising facilities like inside bathrooms to raise the quality of living for residents.

Blocking of some of the roads and turning them into cul-de-sacs.
This would stop through traffic and would reduce traffic fumes and thus improving the air quality for residents.
Having less traffic on the roads would also make it safer for children to play.

Demolishing the engineering works and turning them into an industrial estate.
By clearing derelict property and building an industrial estate on the brownfield site would provide both economic and aesthetic improvements to the area. People would be provided with jobs and this would help to reduce local unemployment.

Demolishing the engineering works and leaving the area as an open space. This would get rid of an eyesore and provide an area for the children to play or an open space for community use.

2007 SC Q1d Describe the advantages and disadvantages for a settlement developing as a commuter village (6marks)
As people move into the village there are more people who can use the village shop or will have children who can attend the village school and therefore these services will not close. They may well get involved in the village community and revitalise village life. On the other hand, they tend to do their shopping in the town where they work and so do not use the village shop. They tend to be older and do not have primary school children and so do not use the village school. There may be a loss of community spirit because the original inhabitants and the newcomers do not mix. The cost of housing is forces up making them too expensive for people born in the village. If the population of a village is on the increase it is more likely to get investment for new projects than if the population was in decline.


2003 Q5b Hi-Tech industry
Using figure 4 and your own knowledge, explain why the high tech industry is locating in the M4 corridor. (6 marks)

High tech industry is located along the M4 which is a fast, reliable road route by which components can be delivered just in time to factories and finished goods can be delivered to markets. Other motorway links from the M4, e.g. M5, M40, M25, M3 provide fast links to other manufacturing and urban areas. High tech industry needs to locate close to large centres of population e.g. London and South Wales for both employees and markets.
High tech industries need proximity to an international airport such as Heathrow as often their headquarters are overseas
These industries locate in close proximity to universities – Bath, Bristol, Reading, Oxford and London where there are well trained scientists doing research that can be used. Such highly qualified employees like to work in pollution free attractive environments e.g. Chilterns, Cotswolds, Marlborough Downs.
Cheaper land sites are found along the M4 corridor compared to London but access to the capital city is fast and easy along M4, M25. The Welsh Development Agency provided government grants to assist new firms opening in the area to west of Bristol into South Wales and is attractive to TNCs locating along the western edge of M4.

2006 Q3b Heavy Industry
Using information from the chemical industry which you have studied, explain why this type of industry can be described as a
heavy industry

A heavy industry uses bulky raw materials and produces an end product which is also heavy and bulky. It often produces large amounts of waste. The Merseyside chemical industry requires large quantities of salt are used in the chemical industry of the Middle Mersey. This comes from the nearby Cheshire salt fields. Ships from abroad can dock in the Mersey estuary bringing other bulky raw materials like potash and nitrates. Large volumes of waste are returned to the River Mersey.

Global warming

2004 Q4d Explain how global warming can be reduced and how its consequence can be managed. (9 marks)

There must be a reduction in the amount of fossil fuels (r) used to make electricity by switching to gas instead of coal fired power stations. Using more renewable forms of energy e.g. wind turbines, solar power etc. would lead to a decrease in the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (r) and therefore a reduction in global warming. World leaders need to meet their targets to reduce CO2 emissions (r) as agreed at the Kyoto conference. If deforestation was reduced in areas like the Amazon Basin there would be a reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere (r). Large areas are cleared each year by peasant farmers, cattle ranchers, timber companies, mines and the building of dams. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as part of the process of photosynthesis and so there should be less deforestation more planting of trees (m) to reduce global warming.
Carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles are rising, more should be done to encourage people to use public transport (m) as this emits much less greenhouse gas per person than cars.
The higher temperatures associated with global warming will lead to a rise in sea level due to the polar ice caps melting. This will increase the danger of flooding in low-lying coastal areas. Sea defences will therefore have to be built (m). The types of sea defences are concrete sea walls, groynes, rip-rap and stone blocks which all help to protect areas from coastal flooding. Another managed retreat is to allow the sea to invade flat lowland areas (m) so that they become natural marshland again e.g. Wallasea Island, Essex.

Calculate your carbon footprint:

WWF-UK footprint calculator


2004 Q6 b ii Explain the formation of a corrie (6 marks)

Snow accumulates in a hollow in the cold northern or eastern side of a mountain. The weight of the snow compacts the bottom layers to form ice and slowly the glacier begins to form and moves downhill due to gravity. As the glacier moves it removes rocks from the back wall due to plucking. Plucking is a process of glacial erosion where ice freezes to the rock and pulls material away as it moves. The rocks may already be shattered due to freeze thaw weathering. Some rock debris gets trapped at the base of the ice and this scours away the underlying rock due to abrasion and so the floor of the corrie is deepened. The rotational movement of the ice means that the ice is moving upwards near the mouth of the corrie which forms a rock lip where there has been less erosion.

2007 SC Q1. Explain the formation of a ribbon lake. (6marks)
The glacier moves down the valley eroding away less resistant rocks. This is done by the ice plucking the first shattered rocks from the valley floor, and abrasing forming a glacial trough. The eroded material is pushed in front of the glacier and is deposited at the furthest part the glacier reaches, forming the terminal moraine. This traps the water when the ice melts to form a ribbon lake.

Arable Farming

2004 HIGHER PAPER 1 Q5c.

Explain why modern farming practices may have an effect on the environment. (4 marks)

To make fields larger hedgerows are often removed. This destroys the habitat for birds, insects and animals. The same thing happens when woodland is cleared or marshland is drained to increase the area of land available for cultivation. Creating larger fields by hedgerow removal will make rainfall run-off from fields more serious causing soil erosion. In dry periods the wind can erode topsoil more easily due to the absence of hedgerow barriers. Also, chemicals sprayed onto crops to control insect pests, for example, aphids, may also destroy ‘friendly’ insects such as ladybirds. Chemical fertilisers used on fields may get washed into nearby rivers by run-off. This encourages the growth of weed which reduces oxygen levels in the river leading to the death of fish. This process is called eutrophication.

2004 Q 6a ii Explain why the arable farm in East Anglia that you have studied is likely to be more profitable than a hill sheep farm in the Lake District. (6 marks)

(note comparison words)

Lynford House Farm Cambridgeshire

The farm is 570ha in size and specializes in mainly three crops – potatoes, wheat and sugar beet. Farm managers work closely with scientific advisers to produce the maximum yields and crop quality. This farm is highly intensive compared to the extensive hill sheep farming at Waterside House Farm in Cumbria. East Anglia has deep fertile heavy clay loam soils to help crop growth unlike the hill farm which has poor thin acidic soil. The climate in East Anglia is also much better for growing arable crops with a longer growing season, warm sunny summers (16 degrees C) which helps crops to grow faster than in the Lake District. Hedgerows have been removed so that all the land can be used for growing crops. As farming is more profitable here more money can be spent on chemical fertilisers and pesticides and on irrigation which helps to promote good crop growth and maximises outputs. Various agricultural machinery can be used because the land is just above sea level in East Anglia unlike the steep fells of Cumbria. In the Lake District the annual rainfall is high 1476mm which leaches the soil of its nutrients and is too wet for growing arable crops. The price of sheep has also decreased recently due to decreased demand whereas the arable farm is able to benefit from subsidies and quotas and so will be more profitable.

shifting cultivation in Amazon Basin

2004 HIGHER PAPER 2 Q3c.

Describe traditional shifting cultivation in Amazonia. (6 marks)

Shifting cultivation is a form of subsistence agriculture.
Small areas (5ha) of forest are cleared with axes or machetes and the undergrowth is burnt, this is referred to as 'slash and burn'. The ashes are ploughed into the soil to be used as fertiliser. Crops such as yams, peppers and cassava are planted by hand using simple tools. Crops are harvested by hand. After a period of 4 - 5 years the soil becomes infertile and yields decline so the indigenous people move on and form another clearing.

Green Revolution

To use technology to
increase food production

Technological changes:
Increased use of Machinery
Chemical inputs
Hybrid seeds

Food production – large increase, wind & disease resistant,
Food prices dropped – good for consumers
Number of crops grown per year - faster growing so extra crop can be grown each year
Yields more reliable
variety of crops leading to a more varied diet
Commercial crops grown and able to be sold to raise income
Not so tall so can withstand heavy wind and rain
Rich farmers who could afford seed, fertilizers and tractors - got richer
Transport systems have improved in some areas

Costs of buying fertilizers & pesticides
Water supply – crops need reliable supply. Increased fertiliser use leading to eutrophication
Increased use of irrigation can cause salinization of drinking water supplies + cost of irrigation
Susceptible to pests and diseases
Poor become poorer – can’t afford seeds, fertilisers, machinery
Mechanization leads to rural unemployment
Farming is less sustainable
Increased rural – urban migration adding to pressure on towns and cities


Climatic Causes
1. Snowmelt in Himalayas creating extra surface run off
2. Soil erosion increases surface run off and excess soil is washed into rivers
3. Heavy monsoon rain concentrated into a few months so ground becomes saturated
4. Tropical cyclones increase the amount of rainfall
5. High winds bring storm surges which flood coastal areas

Relief causes
Delta is flat and low lying.
The rivers are contained by levees and when they burst the surrounding area is flooded

Human causes
1. Deforestation increases surface run off and soil erosion.
2. Increased soil erosion leads to more silt in rivers causing the channels to become choked and leading to further flooding

Short term effects
1. Flooding
2. Drowning
3. Loss of homes
4. Loss of crops
5. Polluted drinking water
6.Loss of communications

Long term effects
1. Starvation
2. Homelessness
3. Illness from polluted water
4. No seed for next year
5. No money
6. Loss of relatives
7. Trauma

Short term solutions

1. Feeding programmes
2. Emergency shelter
3. Aid

Long term solutions
1. Flood Action Plan
2. Improved forecasting
to enable better prediction
3. Reinforce coastal banks
4. Raise mounds on which
people live
5. Improve roads
6. Build concrete storm
7. Problem – money

Why do so many people die as a result of tropical storms in Bangladesh?
with thanks to Isobelle Evans:
Because there are strong winds, many houses will collapse because of the force of the wind and also the weakness of the structures. People could get trapped underneath these buildings and be badly injured or killed. Sometimes tropical storms can bring flooding and so if the floods destroy crops then farmers will have no food or income so therefore this could lead to starvation and death. Flooding also contaminates wate increasing the spread of diseased such as Cholera which if people drink this water they could die. Also the destruction of the houses could block aid from getting to the people who need it so their condition will get worse and they could die.

hydrological cycle

meander cut off video

Rice farming in Ganges Delta

1. Rice seeds need a growing season of 5 months with temperatures > 21 degrees C
2. Rice needs an annual rainfall of over 2000mm with at least 120mm falling in each month of the growing season.
3. A dry sunny period is needed in November and December for ripening and harvesting
4. The delta provides a large amount of flat land which can be flooded to create the padi fields. Mud banks (bunds) are built by hand to enclose the fields.
5. Each time the Ganges floods fertile alluvium is deposited ove r the delta area.
6. There is an impervious subsoil of clay to stop water draining away

The continuous growing season allows 2 crops to be grown annually on the same piece of land.
Rice, initially grown in nurseries, is transplanted as soon as the monsoon rains flood the padi fields.
During the dry season, when there is often insufficient water for rice, either vegetables or a cereal crop is grown.

Rice growing is labour-intensive
construct bunds
to build irrigation channels
to prepare the fields
to plant, weed and harvest the crop


Site of Rotterdam,
Site is the land a settlement is actually built on.

Original site of Rotterdam was 16km from the sea on the River Rotte one of the distributaries of the R. Rhine.
Rotterdam was sited where a dam was built across the Rotte to stop sea water flooding inland during storms.
A port grew at this point because boats from the sea could not travel further inland.
Rotterdam / Europoort is on the delta of the River Rhine

Situation of Rotterdam
The situation of a city is its position in relation to the surrounding region.
Rotterdam / Europoort is at the mouth of the Rhine drainage basin and has road, rail and canal links to cities and industrial regions in other drainage basins. These form Rotterdam / Europoort’s hinterland.

2007 SC C2c Explain why Rotterdam / Europoort developed into a major port
Rotterdam is the world’s largest seaport and has grown because the River Rhine links it to a large hinterland stretching to Switzerland and Austria which includes the Ruhr industrial area. Iron ore is imported which is used to make iron and steel in this area. It is an important break of bulk location and it imports large amounts of oil because of the demand of the petrochemical industry. The Hook of Holland is an important ferry port with links across the North Sea to Harwich, UK

Why has Rotterderdam / Europoort become an important port? In your answer write about site (s)and situation (l)
With thanks to Geoge Pitt....
The city of Rotterdam is at the mouth of the Rhine. The Rhine splits into two districutaries, the Lek and Waal which both flow through Rotterdam. The city therefore has a long waterfront on the banks of the rivers (s) and new docks can be easily excatated out of the soft alluvium (s). Rotterdam's hinterland contains over 80 million people which creates a huge demand for goods, cars and other products (l). Large amounts of low value goods such as oil, iron ore and grain can be transported along the Rhine to other cities and the industrial area of Ruhr (l). A pipeline transports crude oil from Rotterdam to refineries in the Ruhr (l).

Flooding from the sea

The New Waterway - the major shipping route is also the route that a high sea level could use to flood the city.
1953 - gale force winds from N. caused a storm surge which raised the level of the North Sea by 3 metres and there were 3m storm waves on top of that.
The dykes built were broken
1835 people drowned

Global warming is causing storms to be more frequent and sea level is expected to rise by up to 80cm in the next 50 years in southern North Sea

Delta scheme
High dyles have been built and the sea inlets sourth of Rotterdam have been dammed to stop the sea coming in.
The New Waterway has a frame across it with a flood barrier which can be raised when sea level

Flooding from R. Rhine

Problem: The River Rhine is flooding more frequently because:

1. Rainfall has increased because of global warming
2. Water is flowing down the Rhine much faster than it used to. It reaches Rotterdam in larger volumes over a short time rather than in smaller amounts over a longer period.
This is due to:
a. the straightening of the river channels - so barges have shorter journeys
b. deforestation
c. development of agriculture in upper basin which led to faster run off as trees were removed and soil was drained
d. building of towns which have impermeable surfaces
Natural flooding has been prevented bu embankments up to 4.5m high
Floods of 1995 were caused by heavy rain and rapid snow melt.
Rotterdam was flooded but no lives were lost

1. Dig out new meanders to slow the flow of water
2. Build wing dykes in the river to slow it down
3. Move people away from the river in some parts to let it cover the floodplain in winter or set less valuable land aside to store flood water or as wetland nature reserves
4. Ban building on parts of the floodplain
5. Protect factories, homes etc with removable watertight walls made from aluminium girders which can be piled higher as the flood rises


May-October is the wet season. Briefly
explain what causes the wet season. (4 marks)

Between May and October the sun moves overhead between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. The high angle of the sun in the sky causes the land mass of Asia to heat up and temperatures to rise. This warm air rises due to convection and creates a low pressure area over Northern India. Air always moves from high pressure to low pressure areas and so consequently winds blow onshore from the high pressure area centred over Australia. These S/ SW winds are funnelled up the Bay of Bengal and so pick up water vapour and this creates the wet summer monsoon season.

2003 Q3aiii Explain how the tropical monsoon is caused (6 marks)

The sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer in June and this causes high temperatures. The intense heat of the sun causes warm air to rise and low pressure to develop. As winds blow from high pressure to low pressure air is drawn into Bangladesh from the high pressure system to the south causing south-westerly winds to blow in from the Bay of Bengal. These onshore winds pick up moisture and consequently bring the summer monsoon rains.
In winter the sun is overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn. This means that it is at a lower angle in the sky and the land is cooler over the continent of Asia. Cold sinking air forms a high pressure system over Bangladesh and now winds blow off shore towards the high pressure system to the south over the Indian Ocean. These north-easterly winds are cold and dry.

Ganges Delta

Describe the main physical features of a delta and explain how they are formed. You may use labelled diagrams if you wish. (5 marks)

Main physical features of the delta:
Triangular shape
Low lying marshy land
Many distributaries
Banks of sediment

Deforestation which causes soil erosion, and erosion of the highland areas of the Himalayas provides a lot of material which is transported downstream by the River Ganges and its many tributaries. The river slows down as it approaches the sea and, as its current is checked by the sea, it begins to deposit its load of silt. These deposits build up because the sea has a small tidal range and a weak current. This means that the rate at which the river is depositing sediment is greater than the rate at which the tide can remove the material. The river channel becomes choked with the sediment causing the river to split into many channels called distributaries which flow round the banks of sediment. Eventually these banks may become colonised by marsh plants. Gradually the delta is extends out into the coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal.

Command words

Get into the habit of underlining or highlighting these words when you first read an exam question. This will help you to focus on exactly what it is that the examiner is looking for and will help you to appreciate the different parts of a question.

Add notes to a map or diagram. Annotations provide some additional description and/ or explanation. A label is normally a single word

You need to provide a numerical answer. Make sure you show your working out.

Provide an account of the similarities and differences between two sets of information or two areas. Two separate accounts are NOT a comparison. Try to use comparative adjectives e.g. larger than, smaller than, steeper than, gentler than etc. Compare refers to both the similarities and differences.

What are the differences between the two sets of information or areas?

Define / Explain the meaning of…
Give a simple definition or meaning of a term – one or two sentences. An example may be helpful but should never be used instead of a definition. The number of marks will give an indication of the length of answer required.

You are required to put into words what the map, photograph or diagram shows. This account should be factual. Do not attempt to explain the feature.
Describe the characteristics of … what does the feature look like?
Describe the link between …. What is the link between two sets of data?
Describe the changes in …. Often used in relation to a graph or a series of graphs. Good use of adverbs are needed using words such as rapidly, steeply, gently, etc. as well as quoting some figures from the graph which highlight the trends described.
Describe the differences between….. you must describe the differences between the two sets of data. Write each of the differences out in a separate sentence. Don’t write separate descriptions and leave it to the examiner to work out the differences!
Describe the location of / distribution of … This is usually used along with a map. Location refers to the place where something is usually in relation to a direction or other features, for example in the north west or in the mountains (use geographical terms!). Distribution refers to any grouping or recognisable pattern. Better answers will also identify some feature which goes against the overall trend in the distribution.Think: GENERAL pattern, SPECIFIC examples and any EXCEPTIONS
Describe and comment on …. This demands a higher level of response than just describe. You need to make a judgement or infer something.

You need to make a sketch of a feature and label the diagram

Explain / suggest reasons why … / account for…. / how might …..
Give a statement as to why something occurs. You need to show that you know or understand why or how something happens.

Give / Identify / Name / State
These words ask for a short sentence or single word answer to a simple task such as:
A landform may be identified from a photograph
A value from a graph is required
A named example of an item is required

Give reasons
You need to give an explanation, justification or cause of something

Give your views ….
What do you think about a stated issue. Your answer requires the answers to be supported by logical reasoning.

Illustrate your answers with ….
Quote specific examples or make sure that you use the map or diagram provided. High marks only given if diagram etc has been used.

You are required to place specific names or details on a diagram.

Identify and name a number of features. Single words or short sentences are needed.

Look at
Use the diagram, map or graph so that you can use the information contained within it when answering the question.

Refer to … / with reference to … /
This is just like illustrating your answer with

Use / Using the information provided
Base your answer on information provided and make reference to the materials in order to gain full credit.

With the help of…
The answer must use some of the information provided in the illustrative material in addition to their own factual knowledge. You need to make reference to the stated materials in order to gain credit

AQA Syllabus B - case studies

Paper 1

Detailed local scale knowledge is required.

A hill sheep farm in the Lake District Waterside House Farm
An East Anglian arable farm Lynford House Farm, Manea, March
A honey pot tourist site in the Lake District Tarn Hows or Bowness on Windermere
A gas-fired power station Killingholme, Humberside
A coal fired power station Eggborough, Humberside
A nuclear power station Heysham, Lancashire
A hydro-electric power station Cruachan, Grampian Mts. Scotland
A wind farm Lambrigg, Cumbria
A chemical industry on a river estuary Merseyside
The growth, characteristics and morphology of one named large urban area in the UK
One major port other than London with links between England and the EU


The push – pull model of urbanisation - Kolkata

The effects of urbanisation on one large urban area in India Kolkata
A squatter settlement improvement scheme Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority
A development project in an LEDC Vietnam dyke – Ky Anh Province