Monday, 31 March 2008

Mediterranean Spain

2007 SC Q2bii Using climate statistics, explain how the climate of Mediterranean Spain has encouraged the growth of a tourist industry.

The winters are warm with an average temperature of about 10 degreesC which is warmer than in Northern Europe and so people go for winter holidays. In summer the temperature reaches around 25 degrees C but there is less than 5mm of rain so there is plenty of sunshine encouraging people to go for summer holidays.

The following economic factors have been important for the growth of the tourist industry in Mediterranean Spain.
Difficult farming conditions
Growth of package holidays
Cheaper transport
For any twoabove explain how each encouraged the growth of the tourist industry in Mediterranean Spain.

Difficult farming conditions
The long summer drought and the thin soils mean that farming was poor, largely producing olives and wheat. Tourism was an alternative source of income and so was encouraged by the Spanish Government.

Growth of package holidays
Everything was arranged by the holiday companies, so it was more convenient for the tourists and so more were encouraged to travel abroad. Holiday prices were kept low because the holiday companies bought aircraft seats and hotel rooms in bulk and so were much cheaper.

Cheaper transport
Development of large jet aircraft meant that tourists could travel more easily and cheaper than before. There were economies of scale that could be passed on to the holiday makers

2006 P2 Q3biii Study Figure 8, a photograph on the insert, which shows a hotel complex in Mediterranean Spain.
Explain the environmental problems linked with hotel complexes such as this in
Mediterranean Spain (6 marks)
Many high rise hotels have been built along the sea front causing severe visual pollution and destruction of local habitats. There are insufficient sewage plants to deal with all the extra guests in hotels, this untreated sewage may enter the sea and causes water pollution and threaten species. There is an increase in air pollution caused by hotel guests hiring cars and increased charter flights bringing guests into the local airports. There is an increased demand on water supplies for hotel use with laundry, swimming pools and general use this may lead to water shortages. Increased noise from traffic and tourism may also scare wildlife.

2004 P2 Q2d What benefits and problems does tourism bring to local people in Mediterranean Spain?

Tourism brings several benefits to local people: (1) It provides jobs, for example in construction projects and service industries like hotels; (2)It provides people an increased income which is spent benefitting local businesses; (3) Higher income improves the standard of living of local people; (4) Tourist tapaid by xes visitors enables the local authority to improve the quality of local services; (5) Facilities built for tourists can often be used by local people as well.
Tourism also brings several problems: (1) Many of the highest paid jobs in tourism go to overseas workers and local people mainly get the lower paid jobs; (2) In the main tourist season roads become congested particularly around the major tourist resorts within one hour journey from airports e.g. Torremolinos causing increased journey times for locals; (3) Facilities become overcrowded and there will be problems with litter on popular beaches like Benidorm and noise nuisance with late night partying disturbing the sleep of local people (4) Many tourist facilities are owned by foreign companies so profits leave the country rather than benefiting locals; (5) Tourists often buy property in Spanish resorts. They are able to pay higher prices than local people so the locals find it difficult to buy property in their local area. (9 marks)

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