2003 Q5b Hi-Tech industry
Using figure 4 and your own knowledge, explain why the high tech industry is locating in the M4 corridor. (6 marks)
High tech industry is located along the M4 which is a fast, reliable road route by which components can be delivered just in time to factories and finished goods can be delivered to markets. Other motorway links from the M4, e.g. M5, M40, M25, M3 provide fast links to other manufacturing and urban areas. High tech industry needs to locate close to large centres of population e.g. London and South Wales for both employees and markets.
High tech industries need proximity to an international airport such as Heathrow as often their headquarters are overseas
These industries locate in close proximity to universities – Bath, Bristol, Reading, Oxford and London where there are well trained scientists doing research that can be used. Such highly qualified employees like to work in pollution free attractive environments e.g. Chilterns, Cotswolds, Marlborough Downs.
Cheaper land sites are found along the M4 corridor compared to London but access to the capital city is fast and easy along M4, M25. The Welsh Development Agency provided government grants to assist new firms opening in the area to west of Bristol into South Wales and is attractive to TNCs locating along the western edge of M4.
2006 Q3b Heavy Industry
Using information from the chemical industry which you have studied, explain why this type of industry can be described as a heavy industry
A heavy industry uses bulky raw materials and produces an end product which is also heavy and bulky. It often produces large amounts of waste. The Merseyside chemical industry requires large quantities of salt are used in the chemical industry of the Middle Mersey. This comes from the nearby Cheshire salt fields. Ships from abroad can dock in the Mersey estuary bringing other bulky raw materials like potash and nitrates. Large volumes of waste are returned to the River Mersey.